Hippotherapy and therapeutic horseback riding (THR) improve postural control and balance in children with cerebral palsy (CP), say authors of a meta-analysis published in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Although the generalization of the findings may be restricted by the relatively small sample size, say the authors, the results clearly demonstrate that riding therapy is indicated to improve postural control and balance in children with CP.
For this review, relevant studies were identified by systematic searches of multiple online databases from the inception of the database through May 2010. Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) quantitative study design; (2) investigation of the effect of hippotherapy or THR on postural control or balance; and (3) inclusion of children and adults with CP in the study group. The selected articles were rated for methodological quality. The treatment effect was coded as a dichotomous outcome (positive effect or no effect) and quantified by odds ratio (OR). The pooled treatment effect was calculated using a random-effects model. Meta-regression of the effect size was performed against study covariates, including study size, publication date, and methodological quality score.
From 77 identified studies, 10 met the inclusion criteria. Two were excluded because they did not include a comparison group. Therapy was found to be effective in 76 out of 84 children with CP included in the intervention groups. The comparison groups comprised 89 children—50 non-disabled and 39 with CP. A positive effect was shown in 21 of the children with CP in the comparison group regardless of the activity undertaken (ie physical therapy, occupational therapy, sitting on a barrel, or in an artificial saddle). The pooled effect size estimate was positive (OR 25.41), demonstrating a statistically significant effectiveness of hippotherapy or THR in children with CP. Meta-regression of study characteristics revealed no study-specific factors.