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Evidence shows racial and ethnic disparities exist across a range of illnesses and health care services.

Studies addressing these issues report that racial and ethnic disparities persist even when demographic factors, such as socioeconomic status, level of insurance, and comorbidity conditions are controlled.

The 2002 Institute of Medicine report, "Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care," states that while there is substantial data with respect to racial and ethnic disparities pertaining to many health services, there is insufficient data with respect to racial and ethnic disparities in access to, utilization of, or outcomes from physical therapist services.

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