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During the pandemic, the alarming health inadequacies influenced by social factors came into focus in all areas of health care, and social determinants of health, already an area of concentration for many in the health care community — physical therapists included — reappeared at the forefront.

While physical therapist services traditionally have focused on individual-level considerations, addressing SDOH requires looking not only at such intrapersonal factors as one's education level and economic stability, but also considering patients on interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal or policy levels as well. Together, these five levels of influence that can impact health make up what's known as the socio-ecological model.

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