Skip to main content


What it measures:

Mobility, particularly in frail elderly people (Smith et al, 1994).

Target Population:

Older people in a hospital setting

EMS consists of 7 items (Smith, 1994), with different maximum scores set for different groups of items (Yu MSW et al, 2007):

  • Lying to sitting (maximum score=2)
  • Sitting to lying (maximum score=2)
  • Sit to stand (maximum score=3)
  • Stand (maximum score=3)
  • Gait (maximum score=3)
  • Timed walk (6 m) (maximum score=3)
  • Functional reach (maximum score=4)

Total maximum score=20


This test was identified by the Section on Geriatrics and Home Health for use in functional limitation reporting.

You Might Also Like...


Role of Physical Therapists in the Management of Individuals at Risk for or Diagnosed With Venous Thromboembolism: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline 2022 (CPG+)

May 13, 2022

This update of a 2016 guideline provides assistance to physical therapists in the decision-making process when treating patients at risk for venous thromboembolism


Vestibular Rehabilitation for Peripheral Vestibular Hypofunction: An Updated Clinical Practice Guideline From the Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy of the American Physical Therapy Association (CPG+)

Apr 1, 2022

Updated guidelines on how to optimize rehabilitation outcomes for persons with peripheral vestibular hypofunction undergoing vestibular rehabilitation.


Physical Therapist Management of Parkinson Disease: A Clinical Practice Guideline from the American Physical Therapy Association (CPG+)

Apr 1, 2022

Related Resources Parkinson Disease CPG Toolkit Pocket GuideĀ  Podcast: Parkinson CPG Knowledge Translation CPG+ Appraisal Rating 6 out of 7 (How was this