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What it measures:

Mobility, particularly in frail elderly people (Smith et al, 1994).

Target Population:

Older people in a hospital setting

EMS consists of 7 items (Smith, 1994), with different maximum scores set for different groups of items (Yu MSW et al, 2007):

  • Lying to sitting (maximum score=2)
  • Sitting to lying (maximum score=2)
  • Sit to stand (maximum score=3)
  • Stand (maximum score=3)
  • Gait (maximum score=3)
  • Timed walk (6 m) (maximum score=3)
  • Functional reach (maximum score=4)

Total maximum score=20

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Test & Measure

Wheelchair Skills Test 4.1 (WST) – Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

Measures manual wheelchair skills.