Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD)
What it measures:
The PAINAD objectively measures (0-2 scale) 5 common nonverbal pain expressions: breathing, negative vocalization, facial expressions, body language, and ability to console.(1) It can be used to identify observed signs of nonverbal pain.(1) It can be used to measure changes in pain expressions to assess the effectiveness of pain-abating interventions.(2)
Women and men(3,4)
Adults with and without dementia(7)
Different settings (eg, acute, long-term care)(3,4,8)
Different countries (eg, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Singapore)(3,9-11)
Different languages (eg Italian, Dutch, German, Mandarin, Spanish)(3,9,10,12,13)
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